Here are a few MILESTONES in the science odyssey from then to now
In 1912, Henrietta Leavitt creates the Cepheid period-luminosity chart, which
will later serve as the first cosmic yardstick, allowing astronomers to accurately
measure the distance to far-away objects.
Discoveries: Leavitt discovers a correlation between
Cepheids' period and luminosity
People: Henrietta Leavitt
In 1915, Einstein goes on to tackle greater questions
of time, space, and gravity in his general theory of
In 1924, Edwin Hubble finds a Cepheid in the Andromeda
Nebula, allowing him to measure the distance to the nebula.
He finds it to be so far from earth that in fact Andromeda
is a separate galaxy, and our Milky Way is only one small
part of the universe.
In 1926, Erwin Schrödinger publishes his wave
equations, providing mathematical explanations of Bohr's
theories of quantum atomic structure. The following year,
Werner Heisenberg states his uncertainty principle, which
begins to explain the strange working of the subatomic
world, a world that behaves unlike anything we can observe
in our everyday life.
That same year, 1927, Georges LeMaitre develops a
theory of the origins of the universe, which becomes
knows as the "big bang."
In 1929, Edwin Hubble finds that very distant stars
appear to be moving away from earth at a speed proportional
to their distance hence finds proof that the universe
# In 1931, Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron, which
allows physicists to study the behavior of atomic particles
accelerated at very high speeds. This inaugurates an
age of "big science."
In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson hear an annoying
hiss in their satellite antenna, which they identify
as cosmic microwave radiation left over from the big
bang leading to its discovery.
In 1967, Jocelyn Bell finds a message from a distant
star, the first identified pulsar in the universe
In 1976, Thomas Kibble suggests that the uneven distribution
of matter in the universe can be explained by the existence
of cosmic strings formed shortly after the big bang.
Today, physicists like Jim Gates continue to explore
the mathematical workings of the subatomic world.
Nov. 3, 1957: The soviet Union lunches the first artificial
satellite, Sputnik 1.
Oct. 4, 1957: Laika, a dog aboard Spunik 2, is the first
animal in space.
Jan. 31, 1958: The United States Launches its first
earth-orbiting satellite, Explorer 1
Sept. 4, 1959: A Soviet spacecraft, Luna 2, makes the
first hard (crash) landing on the moon.
April 12, 1961: Cosmonuat Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1 becomes
the first person to orbit earth.
May 5, 1961: Alan Shepard in Mercury- Freedom 7 is the
first American in Space.
Feb. 20, 1962: The First American to orbit the earth
is Glenn aboard Mercury- Atlas 6
Sept. 29, 1962: Canada's first satellite, Alouette 1,
is launched into orbit by NASA.
June 16, 1963 Velentina Tereshkova in Vostok 6 becomes
the first woman in space.
March 18, 1965: The first walk in space is made by cosmonaut
Alexei Leonov of Voskhod 2.
June 3, 1965: Edward White is the first American to
walk in space.
Dec. 15, 1965: Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 carry out the first
rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbit.
Feb. 3, 1966: Luna 9 makes the first soft (controlled)
landing on the moon.
Aug. 10, 1966: NASA launches the first Lunar Orbiter
to photograph potential lunar landing sites.
Jan. 27, 1967: Astronauts Virgil Grissom, Edward White,
and Roger Chaffee die during a preflight test when a
fire sweep through the Apollo 1 command module on the
Dec. 21, 1968: NASA launches Apollo 8, the first manned
spacecraft to orbit the moon.
July 20, 1969: Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin
land on the moon.
April 19, 1971: The first space station, Salyut 1, is
Dec. 14, 1972: Apollo 17 makes the last manned landing
on the moon
May 14, 1973: Skylab space station is launched
July 17, 1975: Apollo 18 and Soyuz 19 docking orbit
Oct. 22, 1975: Venera 9 lander reaches Venus and transmits
the first pictures from another planet's suface.
July 20, 1976: The unmanned spacecraft Viking 1 lands
Sept. 5, 1977: Voyager 1 is launched to explore Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Dec. 14, 1979: Europe enters the space age with the
Araine 1 rocket, used to launch commercial satellites.
April 12, 1981: Columbia STS-1 is the first airplane-like
craft to be launched into orbit.
Nov. 12-14, 1981: The Canadarm Remote Manipulator System
is successfully operated for the first time on the second
space shuttle flight.
June 13, 1983: The Pioneer 10 probe is the first man-made
object to leave the solar system.
June 18, 1983: Salley Ride becomes the first American
women in space.
Oct. 5, 1984: Marc Garneau is the first Canadian in
July 2, 1985: European Space Agency launches Giotto
to study Comet Halley.
Jan. 28, 1986: Space Shuttle Challenger STS-51L explodes
73 seconds into the launch.
Feb. 20, 1986: Mir space station is launched.
Dec. 21, 1987: Vladimir Titov, Muso Manarov and Anatoly
Levchenko arrive at the Mir space station and stay a
year, a record for the longest stay in space.
April 25, 1990: The Hubble space telescope is released
Jan. 22, 1992 Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian
women in space.
Sept. 16, 1996: Shannon Lucid returns to Earth after
188 days aboard The Mir space station, an American and
women's record for the longest stay in space.
July 4, 1997: A Pathfinder lands on Mars; 16,550 images
are returned to Earth during the mission.
Oct. 29, 1998 Seventy-seven-year-old Gelnn returns to
space aboard the shuttle discovery, becoming the oldest
person in space.
Nov. 20, 1998: The first component of the International
Space Station-- involving sixteen countries--is launched.
The station will be completed in 2004.